Monday, 28 February 2011
Tuesday, 4 January 2011
1. Who is Dolly? Dolly is the first mammal ever to be successfully cloned.
2. When a zygote divides into to separate cells, it is called: A Somatic cell
3. Somatic cells are also called diploids.
4. In order to clone a gene, a gene is inserted into a plasmid.
5. In order to create an embryo from a somatic cell, the donor egg cell must have its nucleus removed.
6. List all the materials needed to clone a mouse.
Microscope, Petri dishes, Sharp pipette, Blunt pipette, Cell division stimulant.
7. Place the following steps in the correct order.
#4 Stimulate cell division
#6 Deliver baby
#2 Remove and discard the nucleus from the egg cell
#1 Isolate donor cells from egg donor and germ cell donor
#3 Transfer the somatic cell nucleus into the egg cell
#6 Implant embryo into a surrogate mother
8. There are two time gaps in the process of cloning. What are they?
First you must wait for the DNA to be reprogramed, then you must wait for the cell to divid at least 16 times (this is after you have added the stimulant).
9. What color will the cloned mouse be? Brown.
What is the name of this mouse? Mini-mimi
10. Why is cloning extinct animals problematic? Because it is difficult (if not impossible) to find properly preservered Dna from most extinct animals.
11. What are some reasons a person might want to clone a human?
12. What animal was cloned in 1885? A Sea urchin.
13. How did Spemann separate the two cells of the embryo of a salamander in 1902? Using a noose made of hair.
14. The process of removing a nucleus is called enucleation.
15. In 1952, the nucleus of a tadpole embryo cell was placed into a donor cell. Did it work to clone the animal? Some what but the clones grew abnormally.
16. Can the nucleus of an adult cell be injected into an egg cell and produce a clone? Yes
17. Why are mammals hard to clone? Mammals have very complex DNA structors.
18. What were the names of the first two cloned cows? Fusion and copy
19. In what year was the National Bioethics Advisory Council formed? It was formed in 1990
20. The first mammal clone to be produced from an adult (somatic) cell? Dolly
21. What do scientists do to adult cells to make them "behave" like embryos? By using an electric shock.
22. Transgenic, cloned sheep were used to produce what medical protein? The IX protein.
23. What is a stem cell? A cell who's job in the body which has yet to be determined.
24. Briefly describe in your own words, why CC the cat was not identical in color to Rainbow, even though she was a clone. Because she had different color genes switched on then Rainbow
25. What is "nature vs nurture"?
It is the ongoing debate about what determines a persons personality: The way that they were raised, or their predetermined genome.
26. For each of the following scenarios, indicate YES (it is cloning) or NO (it is not cloning)
No Sperm taken from a mole goat is combined with a female's egg in a petri dish. The resulting embryo is implanted into the female's uterus to develop
Yes sheep embryo, composed of 16 cells, is removed from the mother's uterus and separated into indivudal cells. Each cell is allowed to multiply, creating 16 separate embryos, which are then implanted in different female sheep to develop to maturity.
No A cow with many desirable traits is stimulated with hormones to produce a number of egg cells. Each of these eggs is fertilized and implanted into a surrogate mother.
No In vitro fertilization
Yes Cell nuclei from an extinct wolly mammoth are placed into enucleated cow cells.
27. Define or describe each of the following processes (you may need to reset the Cloning or Not Screen)
In vitro fertilization is a process by which egg cells are fertilized by sperm outside the body
Embryo splitting is the process of splitting an embryo in to 2 to 8 cells which will then develop in to separate embryos.
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer is a method for creating a clonal embryo, by using an ovum and a donor nucleus.
Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer is where the multiple ovulation is where the female animal is manipulated hormonally to produce more than the usual number of eggs during ovulation. Then after each of the eggs is fertalized they are transplanted in to another separate mother, where they are allowed to grow.
Artificial Insemination is the process by which sperm is placed into the reproductive tract of a female for the purpose of impregnating the female by using means other than sexual intercourse.
28. What is one reason why cloning animals has such a high failure rate?
29. What is a telomere and how does it affect cloned animals?
A telomere is the DNA sequence at the end of the chromosome that gets shorter every time a cell is copied
What Are Some Issues in Cloning?
30. Pick one of the questions to ponder and ....ponder it. Write a brief essay on your thoughts and opinions.
What Are Some Issues in Cloning?
Monday, 3 January 2011
It is a Crop that has been purposefully and genetically modified by humans for our benefits. An example of a genetically engineered crop is a tomato that has been redesigned to last longer after it has been picked.
2. List 2 arguments FOR the growing of GM crops
Having pest resistant crops could help the environment because pest resistant crops require much less pesticide and, therefor much less chemicals. Technically Genetically modifying plants is natural. Plants modify themselves through evolution and humans have always used selective breeding to change plants and animals.
3. List 2 arguments AGAINST the growing of GM crops.